Can You Lose Weight Drinking Apple Cider Vinegar?
In the natural health world apple cider vinegar is considered a cure-all, with claims that it improves digestion, boosts immunity and promotes weight loss. Made from fermenting sugar, apples and yeast, the amber-colored vinegar is rich in acetic acid, the compound to which its purported benefits are attributed
Although research results are mixed and limited, apple cider vinegar may contribute to weight loss through its effects on metabolism, appetite and blood sugar. However, the impact is small when compared to the effects of diet and exercise.
Apple Cider Vinegar and Weight Loss
It’s thought that acetic acid — the active ingredient in all vinegars — impacts the way the body metabolizes fat. Much of the research investigating this theory has been conducted with animals, so the effects on people are still uncertain. However, a few small studies involving humans point toward positive results.
In a study published in 2014 in Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, 155 obese Japanese people consumed a daily beverage containing either 15 milliliters of vinegar, 30 milliliters of vinegar or no vinegar. Dietary intake and exercise levels were equal among the three groups.
After 12 weeks both of the vinegar groups lost weight, with the high-dose group losing more than the low-dose group. However, in both groups the results were small — two to four pounds over three months.
In another study published in the Journal of Chiropractic Medicine in 2013, a group of men and women drank a daily green drink containing apple cider vinegar, wheatgrass, alfalfa and fulvic acid. They were also given an oral supplement consisting of various herbs, such as cat’s claw and pau d’arco.
In addition, the study participants followed a reduced-calorie diet that ranged from 1,200 to 1,800 calories daily. At the end of the 21-day study, the men and women had lost a little more than eight pounds.
While the participants in the study lost a significant amount of weight in a short period of time, it’s difficult to determine if it was the apple cider vinegar, one of the other supplements or the low-calorie diet that helped with the weight loss.
Other Benefits of Apple Cider Vinegar
1. Hunger Control
One way apple cider vinegar may aid weight loss is by increasing satiety and helping you eat less. Highly acidic vinegar taken with a bread meal helped participants feel full more quickly in a 2005 study published in the European Journal of Clinical Nutrition.
Split into groups receiving vinegar of three different levels of acidity, participants in the highest-acidity group experienced the highest levels of satiety. That satiety also lasted the longest after the meal. Researchers suggest that the effects had to do with vinegar’s impact on post-meal blood sugar levels.
Another study suggests a different, not-so-good reason vinegar reduces hunger: It can make people feel sick. In a 2014 study published in International Journal of Obesity, healthy, normal-weight subjects were given a vinegar or non-vinegar drink alongside a breakfast meal. The group receiving the vinegar drink became full more quickly, however, they also reported feelings of nausea.
2. Lowers Blood Sugar
The hunger control in the 2005 European Journal of Clinical Nutrition study may have been partly related to vinegar’s impact on blood sugar. The researchers of this study found that the higher the acidity of the vinegar, the more it lowered blood sugar.
Preventing spikes and drops in blood sugar after a meal can prolong satiety and prevent hunger soon after eating, which, of course, can help you lose weight.
Another study published in 2005 in the Journal of the American Dietetic Association reported that vinegar improved post-meal blood sugar and also noted that the participants ate slightly fewer calories the rest of the day.
3. Improves Heart Health
A few animal studies have shown potential benefits of apple cider vinegar for heart health. In a 2008 study published in Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, normal and diabetic rats fed apple cider vinegar for four weeks had improved serum lipid profiles.
Both groups had lowered low-density lipoprotein (the unhealthy cholesterol) and increased high-density lipoproteins (the good cholesterol). Reduced serum triglyceride levels were also lower in both the diabetic and non-diabetic rats.
In another animal study, mice were fed a high-cholesterol diet as well as apple cider vinegar. Compared to the control group that did not receive vinegar, the vinegar-fed mice had lower serum lipid levels at the end of the 28-day treatment period. The results were published in The Journal of Membrane Biology in 2014.
But to date there have been no human studies to corroborate these results.
4. May Protect Against Cancer
There’s some preliminary research suggesting the ability of apple cider vinegar to kill or slow the growth of cancer cells. In a 2014 study, the results of which were published in the Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, acetic acid was added in varying concentrations to rat and human gastric cancer cell cultures.
A 0.5 percent solution of acetic acid induced more than 80 percent cell death in one minute. Afte